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Vedantasara ( by Sadananda ) - Part 1

Vedantasara by Sadananda, Translated by Swami Nikhilananda - Slokas, Meaning, Translation | Siddhanta Panjara, Siddhanta tattva Bindu, Vedanta Panchadasi, Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankaracharya - Philosophy, Books, Library, Quotes, Techings, Videos, Ashram Hindu Spiritual Articles and Videos
Vedantasara by Sadananda, Translated by Swami Nikhilananda

Preliminaries

   1. I take refuge in the Self, the Indivisible, the Existence-Consciousness-Bliss Absolute, beyond the reach of words and thought, and the substratum of all, for the attainment of my cherished desire.
   2. Having worshipped the Guru who on account of his being free from the illusion of duality justifies the meaning of his name Advayananda, I undertake the task of expounding the essence of the Vedanta according to my light.
   3. Vedanta is the evidence of the Upanishads, as well as the Sariraka Sutras (Brahma Sutras) and other books that help in the correct expounding of its meaning.
   4. On account of its being a Prakarana treatise of Vedanta, the Anubandhas, preliminary questions of the latter, serve its purpose as well. Therefore they need not be discussed separately.
   5. The preliminary questions of Vedanta are the determination of the competency of the student, the subject-matter, its connection with the book and the necessity for its study.
   6. The competent student is an aspirant who, by studying in accordance with the prescribed method the Vedas and the Vedangas (the books auxiliary to the Vedas), has ordained a general comprehension of the entire Vedas; who, being absolved from all sins in this or in a previous life by the avoidance of the actions known as kamya (rites performed with a view to attaining a desired object) and Nisiddha (those forbidden in the scriptures) and by the performance of actions called Nitya (daily obligatory rites) and Naimittika (obligatory on special occasions) as well as by penance and devotion, has become entirely pure in mind, and who has adopted the four Sadhanas or means to the attainment of spiritual knowledge.
   7. The sacrifices such as Jyotistoma etc., which enable their performers to get the desired fruits such as living in heaven etc., are known as Kamya Karma.
   8. Actions such as the slaying of a Brahmin etc., which bring about undesired results as going to hell etc., are Nisiddha Karma or forbidden acts.
   9. Daily rites, such as Sandhyavandana etc., the non-performance of which causes harm, are called Nitya Karma.
   10. Jatesti sacrifices (which are performed subsequent to the birth of a son) etc., are called the Naimittika Karma or rites to be observed on special occasions.
   11. Rites such as Chandrayana etc., which are instrumental in the expiation of sin, are Prayaschittas or penances.
   12. Mental activities relating to the Saguna Brahman – such as are described in the Sandilya Vidya are Upasanas or devotions.
   13. Of these, Nitya and other works mainly serve the purpose of purifying the mind; but the Upasanas chiefly aim at the concentration of the mind, as in such Sruti passages, “Brahmanas seek to know this Self by the study of the Vedas, by sacrifice” (Brihadaranyaka-IV-4-22); as well as in such Smriti passages, “they destroy sins by practising austerities” (Manu 12.104)
   14. The secondary results of the Nitya and the Naimittika Karma and of the Upasanas are the attainment of the Pitruloka and the Satyaloka respectively; as in the Sruti passages, “By sacrifice the world of the Fathers, by knowledge (Upasana) the world of the Devas (is gained)"”(Br. Up.I.5.16)
   15. The means to the attainment of Knowledge are: discrimination between things permanent and transient; renunciation of the enjoyment of the fruits of actions in this world and hereafter; six treasures, such as control of the mind etc., and the desire for spiritual freedom.
   16. Discrimination between things permanent and transient; this consists of the discrimination that “Brahman alone is the permanent Substance and that all things other than It are transient.”
   17. The objects of enjoyment hereafter, such as immortality etc., being as transitory as the enjoyment of such earthly objects as a garland of flowers, sandal paste and sex-pleasures, which are transitory, being results of action – an utter disregard for all of them is renunciation of the enjoyment of fruits of action in this world and hereafter.
   18. Sama etc., comprise Sama or the restraining of the outgoing mental propensities, Dama or the restraining of the external sense-organs, Uparati or the withdrawing of the Self, Titiksha or forbearance, Samadhana or self-settledness, and Sraddha or faith.
   19. Sama is the curbing of the mind from all objects except hearing etc.,
   20. Dama is the restraining of the external organs from all objects except that.
   21. Uparati is the cessation of these external organs so restrained, from the pursuit of objects other than that; or it may mean the abandonment of the prescribed works according to scriptural injunctions.
   22. Titiksha is the endurance of heat and cold and other pairs of opposites.
   23. Samadhana is the constant concentration of the mind, thus restrained, on hearing etc., of the scriptural passages and other objects that are conducive to these.
   24. Sraddha is the faith in the truths of Vedanta as taught by the Guru.
   25. Mumukshutva is the yearning for spiritual freedom.
   26. Such an aspirant is a qualified student; for it is said in the sruti passages, “quiet, subdued” (Br. Up. IV-4.23). It is further said, “This is always to be taught to one who is of tranquil mind, who has subjugated his senses, who is free from faults, obedient, endowed with virtues, always submissive, and who is constantly eager for liberation” (Sankara’s Upadesha-Sahasri 324.16.72)
   27. The subject is the identity of the individual self and Brahman, which is of the nature of Pure intelligence and is to be realised. For such is the purport of the Vedanta texts.
   28. The connection is the relation between that identity which is to be realised and the evidence of the Upanishads that establishes it, as between a thing to be known and that which tells of it.
   29. The necessity is the dispelling of ignorance relating to that identity which is to be realised, as the attainment of bliss resulting from the realisation of one’s own Self. As in such Sruti passages, “The knower of Self overcomes grief” (Ch. Up. VII-1.3), “He who knows Brahman becomes Brahman” (Mund. Up. III-2-9).
   30. Such a qualified pupil scorched with the fire of an endless round of birth, death, etc., should repair – just as one with one’s head on fire rushes to a lake – with presents in hand, to a Guru, learned in the Vedas and ever living in Brahman, and serve him – as the following and other Srutis say: “Let him in order to understand this repair with fuel in his hand to a spiritual guide who is learned in the Vedas and lives entirely in Brahman” (Mund. Up. I-2-12).
   31. Such a Guru through his infinite grace instructs the pupil by the method of de-superimposition (Apavada) of the superimpositions (Adhyaropa) – as in such Sruti passages: “To that pupil who has approached him with due courtesy, whose mind has become perfectly calm, and who has control over his senses, the wise teacher should truly impart that Knowledge of Brahman through which he knows the Being, imperishable and real" (Mund. Up. I-2-13).

Superimposition

   32. Adhyaropa is the superimposition of the unreal on the real, like the false perception of a snake in a rope which is not a snake.
   33. Reality is Brahman which is without a second and is Existence, Consciousness, and Bliss. Unreality is Nescience and all other material objects.
   34. However, ignorance is described as something positive though intangible, which cannot be described either as being or non-being, which is made of three qualities and is antagonistic to Knowledge. Its existence is established from such experiences as “I am ignorant”, and from such Sruti passages as, “The power belonging to God Himself, hidden in its own qualities” (Svet. Up.I-3).
   35. This ignorance is said to be one or many according to the mode of observing it either collectively or individually.
   36. As, for instance, trees considered as an aggregate are denoted as one, viz., the forest, or water is collectively named as the reservoir, so also ignorance, existing in Jivas being diversely manifested, is collectively, represented as one – as in such scriptural passages as, “There is one unborn etc.,” (Svet. Up. IV-5).
   37. This aggregate (of ignorance) on account of its appearing associated with Perfection (Pure Intelligence of Brahman) has a preponderance of pure Sattva.
   38. Consciousness associated with this is endowed with such qualities as omniscience, universal lordship, all-controlling power, etc., and is designated as the undifferentiated, the inner guide, the cause of the world and Isvara on account of Its being the illuminator of the aggregate of ignorance. As in the Sruti passage, “who knows all (generally), who perceives all (particularly)” (Mund. Up. I-1-9).
   39. This aggregate of ignorance associated with Isvara is known as the causal body on account of its being the cause of all, and as the Anandamayakosa (the blissful sheath) on account of its being full of bliss and covering like a sheath; it is further known as the Cosmic sleep as into it everything is dissolved, and, for this reason, it is designated as the state of dissolution of the gross and subtle phenomena.
   40. As a forest, from the standpoint of the units that compose it, may be designated as a number of trees, and as a reservoir from the same point of view may be spoken of as quantities of water, so also ignorance when denoting separate units is spoken of as many; as in such Sruti passages as, “Indra through Maya appears as of many forms” (Rig-Veda VI-47-18).
   41. Ignorance has been designated as individual and collective on account of its pervading the units and the aggregate.
   42. The individual ignorance, on account of its association with the inferior being, is characterized by impure Sattva.
   43. Consciousness associated with this has limited knowledge and is devoid of the power of lordship; it is called Prajna on account of its being the illuminator of individual ignorance.
   44. It is called Prajna as it is deficient in illumination on account of its association with a dull limiting adjunct.
   45. The individual ignorance, associated with it is also known as the causal body on account of its being the cause of egoism etc., and as the blissful sheath because it is full of bliss and covers like a sheath; it is further known as dreamless sleep since into it everything is dissolved; and for this reason it is also designated as the state of dissolution of the gross and subtle phenomena.
   46. In the state of dreamless sleep both Isvara and Prajna, through a very subtle function of ignorance illumined by Consciousness, enjoy happiness, as in the Sruti passage: "Prajna, the enjoyer of bliss, with Consciousness for its aid (is the third aspect)” (Mand. Up. 5); as also from such experience of a man awaking from dreamless sleep as, “I slept happily, I did not know anything.”
   47. This aggregate and individual ignorance are identical like a forest and the trees, or a reservoir and the water.
   48. As the Akasa enclosed by the forest is identical with the Akasa enclosed by the trees, or as the Akasa reflected in the water is the same as the Akasa reflected in the reservoir, similarly Isvara and Prajna associated with these (aggregate and individual ignorance) are identical. There are such Sruti passages as, He is the Lord of all, (He is omniscient, He is the inner controller, He is the source of all, He is the cause of the origin and destruction of creatures)” (Mand. Up. 6).
   49. Like the unlimited Akasa which is the substratum of the Akasa enclosed by the forest and the trees, or of the Akasa which is reflected in the water and the reservoir, there is an unlimited Consciousness which is the substratum of the aggregate and the individual ignorance as well as of the Consciousness (Isvara and Prajna) associated with them. This is called the “Fourth”. As in such Sruti passages as, “That which is (tranquil), auspicious and without a second, That the wise conceive of as the Fourth aspect. (He is the Self; He is to be known)” (Mand. Up. 7).
   50. This Pure Consciousness which is known as the “Fourth”, when not discriminated, like a red-hot iron-ball, from ignorance and the Consciousness with which it is associated, becomes the direct meaning of the great Vedic dictum (“Thou art That”), and when discriminated, it gives us its implied meaning.
   51. This ignorance has two powers, viz., the power of concealment and the power of projection.
   52. Just as a small patch of cloud, by obstructing the vision of the observer, conceals, as it were, the solar disc extending over many miles, similarly ignorance, though limited by nature, yet obstructing the intellect of the observer, conceals, as it were, the Self which is unlimited and not subject to transmigration. Such a power is this power of concealment. It is thus said: “As the sun appears covered by a cloud and bedimmed to a very ignorant person whose vision is obscured by the cloud, so also That which to the unenlightened appears to be in bondage is my real nature – the Self – Eternal Knowledge” (Hastamalaka 10).
   53. The Self covered by this (concealing power of ignorance may become subject to samsara (relative existence) characterised by one’s feeling as agent, the experiencing subject, happy, miserable, etc., just as a rope may become a snake due to the concealing power of one’s own ignorance.
   54. Just as ignorance regarding a rope, by its inherent power, gives rise to the illusion of a snake etc., in the rope covered by it, so also ignorance, by its own power creates in the Self covered by it, such phenomena as Akasa etc., Such a power is called the power of projection. It is thus said: “The power of projection creates all from the subtle bodies to the cosmos” (Vakyasudha 13).
   55. Consciousness associated with ignorance, possessed of these two powers, when considered from its own standpoint is the efficient cause, and when considered from the standpoint of its Upadhi or limitation is the material cause (of the universe).
   56. Just as the spider, when considered from the standpoint of its own self, is the efficient cause of the web, and when looked upon from the standpoint of its body, is also the material cause of the web.
   57. From Consciousness associated with the projecting power of ignorance which has a preponderance of the quality of darkness, has evolved Akasa which, in its turn, has produced air, from air has come fire, from fire water, and from water earth. As in such Sruti passages, “From this Self has evolved Akasa” (Tait. Up. II-1-1).
   58. On account of the preponderance of inertia observed in them, their cause also must have an excess of the quality of darkness (Tamas). At that time the qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are reproduced in ether etc., in accordance with the law that the qualities of the cause determine the qualities of the effect.
   59. These are called subtle matter, rudimentary elements (Tanmatras) and uncompounded (Apanchikrita) elements.
   60. From these subtle elements are produced subtle bodies and gross elements.
   61. The subtle bodies are what are known as the Linga-Sariras having seventeen component parts.
   62. The component parts (of the Linga-Sarira) are the five organs of perception, the intellect, the mind, the five organs of action, and the five vital forces.
   63. The five organs of perception are the ears, the skin, the eyes, the tongue, and the nose.
   64. These are produced separately in consecutive order from the Sattva particles of ether etc.,
   65. Intellect (Buddhi) is that modification of the internal instrument (Antahkarana) which determines.
   66. The mind (Manas) is that modification of the internal instrument which considers the pros and cons of a subject (Sankalpa and Vikalpa).
   67. The mind-stuff (Chitta) and egoism (Ahamkara) are included in the intellect (Buddhi) and the mind (Manas) respectively.
   68. Memory (Chitta) is that modification of the inner organ which remembers.
   69. Egoism (Ahamkara) is that modification of the inner organ which is characterised by Self-consciousness.
   70. These, be it noted, are produced from the combination of the Sattva particles of ether etc.,
   71. On account of their being luminous they are said to be the products of the Sattva particles.
   72. This intellect (Buddhi) together with the organs of perception constitutes the intelligent sheath (Vijnanamayakosa).
   73. This Vijnanamayakosa, on account of its being conscious that it is an agent and enjoyer and that it is happy or miserable etc., is called the phenomenal Jiva (the individual self) subject to transmigration to this and the other worlds.
   74. The mind with the organs of perception constitutes the mental sheath (manomayakosa).
   75. The organs of action are the organs of speech, the hands, the feet, and the organs of evacuation and generation.
   76. These are produced separately in consecutive order from the active (Rajas) particles of ether etc.,
   77. The five vital forces are the Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana and Samana.
   78. Prana is that vital force which goes upward and has its seat at the tip of the nose.
   79. Apana is that vital force which goes downward and has its seat in the organs of excretion.
   80. Vyana is that vital force which moves in all directions and pervades the entire body.
   81. Udana is the ascending vital force which helps the passing out from the body and has its seat in the throat.
   82. Samana is that vital force which assimilates food and drink and has its seat in the middle of the body.
   83. Assimilation means digestion of food and its conversion into chyle, blood, and other materials of the body.
   84. Others say that there are five more vital forces known as Naga, Kurma, Krikala, Devadatta and Dhananjaya.
   85. Of these Naga is that which causes vomiting or erection, Kurma opens the eye-lids, Krikala creates hunger, Devadatta produces yawning and Dhananjaya nourishes the body.
   86. Some say that on account of their being included in Prana etc., the vital forces are really five in number.
   87. These five vital forces, viz., Prana etc., are produced from the combination of the active (Rajas) particles of ether etc.,
   88. These five vital forces such as Prana etc., together with the organs of action, constitute the vital sheath (Pranamayakosa). Its active nature shows that it is the product of the particles of Rajas.
   89. Among these sheaths, the intelligent sheath (Vijnanamayakosa) which is endowed with the power of knowledge is the agent; the mental sheath (Manomayakosa) which is endowed with will-power is the instrument; and the vital sheath (Pranamayakosa) which is endowed with activity is the product. This division has been made according to their respective functions. These three sheaths together constitute the subtle body.
   90. Here also the sum total of all the subtle bodies, when looked upon as one, like a forest or a reservoir, is called samasti or aggregate and when viewed as many, like the trees or quantities of water, is called Vyasti or individual.
   91. Consciousness associated with this totality is called Sutratma, Hiranyagarbha and Prana etc., because it is immanent everywhere and because it identifies itself with the five great uncompounded elements endowed with the powers of knowledge, will and activity.
   92. This aggregate made up of three sheaths such as Vijnanamayakosa etc., (which forms the limiting adjunct) of Hiranyagarbha is called the subtle body as it is finer than the gross universe. It is also called the dream state, as it consists of the impressions of the waking state; and for that very reason it is known as the merging place for the gross universe.
   93. Consciousness associated with each individual subtle body is known as Taijasa (full of light) on account of its being associated with the effulgent inner organ (Antahkarana).
   94. The individual limiting adjunct of taijasa too, made up of the three sheaths, such as Vijnanamayakosa etc., is called the subtle body, as it is finer than the gross body. It is also called the dream state, as it consists of the impressions of the waking state, and for that very reason it is known as the merging place for the gross body.
   95. The Sutratma and Taijasa, at that time, through (subtle) functionings of the mind, experience the subtle objects. Witness such Sruti passages as, “Taijasa is the enjoyer of subtle objects” (Mand. Up. 3).
   96. Here also the aggregate and individual subtle bodies are identical, like a forest and its trees or like a lake and its waters, and the Sutratma and the Taijasa, which have those bodies as their limiting adjuncts, are also identical like the spaces enclosed by a forest and its trees or like the skies reflected in the lake and its waters.
   97. Thus do the subtle bodies originate.
   98. But the gross elements are all compounded.
   99. The compounding takes place thus: Each of the five elements, viz., ether etc., is divided into two equal parts; of the ten parts thus produced five – being the first half of each element – are each sub-divided into four equal parts. Then leaving one half of each element, to the other half is added one of these quarters from each of the other four elements.
   100. Thus it has been said: “By dividing each element into two equal parts, and sub-dividing the first half of each element into four equal parts, and then adding to the other half of each element one sub-division of each of the remaining four, each element becomes five in one.” (Panchadasi I-27)
   101. The authoritativeness of this method of compounding should not be questioned for the triple combination described in the Sruti indirectly refers to this.
   102. Though these five gross elements are alike in so far as each of them contains the five elements, yet they are differently named as ether etc., owing to the “preponderance of a particular element in them” (Brahma Sutras II-4-22).
   103. At that time ether manifests sound; air manifests sound and touch; fire sound, touch and form; water sound, touch, form and taste; and earth manifests sound, touch, form, taste and smell.
   104. From these compounded elements have evolved the seven planes, existing one above the other, viz., Bhur, Bhuvar, Svar, Mahar, Jana, tapas and Satyam; and the seven nether planes, one below the other, viz., Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Rasatala, Talatala, Mahatala and Patala; the world, the four kinds of gross bodies contained in it together with the food and drink appropriate to them.
   105. The four kinds of gross bodies are those that are born of the womb, the egg, moisture and the soil.
   106. Those that are born of the womb refer to men, beasts etc.,
   107. Those that come out of the egg are the birds, reptiles etc.,
   108. Those that are born of moisture are the lice, mosquitoes etc.,
   109. Those that spring from the soil are the trees, creepers etc.,
   110. Here also all the gross bodies, in their fourfold variety, may be spoken of collectively or individually according as they are thought of as one like a forest or a lake, or many like the trees and the quantities of water.
   111. Consciousness associated with this aggregate of gross bodies is called Vaisvanara and Virat on account of its identification with all bodies, and from its manifestation in diverse ways respectively.
   112. This aggregate gross body of his is called the alimentary sheath (Annamayakosa) on account of its being a modification of food, and is said to be in the waking state on account of its being the medium for the enjoyment of gross objects.
   113. Consciousness associated with the individual gross body is designated as Visva on account of its entering the gross body etc., without giving up its identification with the subtle body.
   114. This individual gross body of his (of the Jiva) is also called the alimentary sheath on account of its being a modification of food, and is said to be in the waking state.
   115. Both Visva and Vaisvanara at that time, perceive the gross objects, viz., sound, touch, colour, taste and smell respectively through the five sense-organs, such as the ears etc., controlled respectively by (the presiding deities, viz.,) the Quarters (Dik), Air (Vayu), Sun, Varuna and the two Asvins. They also perform the functions of speech, acceptance, walking, excretion and enjoyment respectively through the five organs of action, such as the tongue etc., controlled respectively by Fire, Indra, Vishnu, Yama and Prajapati. They also experience uncertainty, determination, personality and remembrance, respectively through the four inner organs, viz., mind, intellect, egoism and memory (Chitta) controlled respectively by the Moon, Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu. Witness such Sruti passages as: “Whose place is the waking state, who is conscious of the external world” (Mand. Up. 3).
   116. Here also the individual and collective gross bodies are identical as before, like the trees and the forest, or like the quantities of water and the lake; and so are Visva and Vaisvanara, which are respectively associated with those bodies, identical, like the spaces enclosed by the trees and the forest, or like the reflections of the sky in the quantities of water and the lake.
   117. Thus has the gross phenomenal universe evolved from the five compounded elements.
   118. The sum total of the gross, subtle and causal worlds makes a Vast Universe as the sum total of smaller forests makes a vast forest, of a collection of smaller lakes makes a vast expanse of water.
   119. Consciousness associated with this, from Vaisvanara to Isvara is also one and the same, as the space enclosed by a number of smaller forests is the same as that enclosed by the big forest of which they form part, or as the sky reflected in different smaller lakes is the same as that reflected in the vast expanse of water which they form.
   120. Consciousness, unassociated with any adjuncts (Upadhis) whatsoever, when not discriminated – like the red-hot iron-ball – from the Vast Universe and the Consciousness associated with it, becomes the direct import of the (great) Vedic dictum, “All this is verily Brahman” (Ch. Up. III-14-1) and when discriminated from them it becomes the implied meaning of that text.
   121. Thus has been shown, in general, the process of superimposition, which is the attributing of unreality to the real.

The Jiva and Superimposition

   122. Now will be considered, in particular, how people variously superimpose on the innermost Self such ideas as “I am this,” “I am this,” etc.,
   123. (Thus for example) an extremely deluded man speaks of his son as his own Self, on account of such Sruti passages as, “Verily the Self is born as the son,” owing also to the fact that one loves one’s son as one’s own Self, and further because of the experience that one feels oneself prosperous or ruined according as one’s son fares well or ill.
   124. One school of Charvakas, however, holds that this physical body is the Self, on account of such Sruti passages as, “Man is constituted of the essence of food” (Tait. Up. II-1-1), owing also to the fact that a man rushes out from a burning house even leaving behind his son, and further because of such experiences as. “I am stout,” “I am thin,” etc.,
   125. Another school of Charvakas speaks of the sense-organs as the Self, on account of such Sruti passages as, “The sense-organs went to their father, Prajapati, and said,” (Ch. Up. V-1-7), owing also to the fact that the movement of the body ceases when the organs cease to work, and further because of such experiences as, “I am blind of one eye,” “I am deaf,” etc.,
   126. Still another school of Charvakas holds that Prana or vital force is the Self, on account of such Sruti passages as, “Different from and more internal than this (the physical body) is the Self which consists of the vital force” (Tait. Up. II-2-1), owing also to the fact that with the cessation of the working of the vital force, the sense-organs cease to function; and because of such experiences as, “I am hungry,” “I am thirsty,” etc.,
   127. Yet another school of Charvakas holds that mind (Manas) is the Self, on account of such Sruti passages as, “Different from and more internal than this (which consists of the vital force) is the Self which consists of mind” (Tait. Up. II-3-1), owing also to the fact that the vital force etc., cease to work when the mind goes into deep sleep, and further because of such experience as, “I am considering the pros and cons,” etc.,
   128. As against this, the Buddhists say that the intellect is the Self, on account of such Sruti passages as, “Different from and more internal than this is the Self which consists of Consciousness” (Tait. Up. II-4-1), owing also to the fact that the instrument becomes powerless in the absence of the agent and from such experiences as, “I am the agent,” “I am the enjoyer,” etc.,
   129. The Prabhakaras and the Tarkikas on the other hand say that ignorance is the Self on account of such Sruti passages as, “Different from and more internal than this is the Self which consists of bliss” (Tait. Up. II-5-1), and owing also to the fact that during sound sleep the intellect etc., merge in ignorance, and further because of such experiences as, “I am ignorant,” “I am devoid of Knowledge,” etc.,
   130. The Bhattas on the contrary say that consciousness associated with ignorance is the self, on account of such Sruti passages as, “During dreamless sleep the Atman is undifferentiated consciousness and full of bliss” (Man. Up. 5), owing also to the fact that both consciousness and unconsciousness are present in a state of dreamless sleep and from such experience as, “I do not know myself,” etc.,
   131. Another school of Buddhists says that the Self is identical with the void, on account of such Sruti passages as, “In the beginning there was non-existence” (Ch. Up. VI-2-1), owing also to the fact that there is an absence of everything during dreamless sleep, and further because of the experience, regarding his non-existence, of a man who has just awakened; as when he says to himself, “During the dreamless sleep I was non-existent.”
   132. Now it will be shown that all these items from the son to the void are not the Self.
   133. Since in all these fallacious citations of scriptural passages, arguments and personal experiences, made by the different classes of people enumerated above beginning with the extremely deluded, in support of their respective views about the Self, the subsequent view contradicts the previous one, it becomes quite clear that all these items from the son to the void are not the Self.
   134. Moreover none of the items from the son to the void is the Self, because all those fallacious citations of scriptural passages, arguments, and personal experiences in support of them are all nullified for the following reasons: first because they contradict strong scriptural passages which describe the Self as not gross, without eyes, without the vital force, without the mind, not an agent, but Consciousness, Pure Intelligence and Existence; secondly because they are material and are illumined by Pure Consciousness and as such are unreal, like a pot etc., and lastly because of the strong intuition of the man of realization that he is Brahman.
   135. Therefore the innermost Consciousness which is by nature eternal, pure, intelligent, free and real, and which is the illuminer of those unreal entities (such as the son etc.,) is the Self. This is the experience of the Vedantists.
   136. The above is an account of superimposition of unreality on the Real.





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